MOVIE DIRECTORS

FilmreelMOVIE DIRECTORS
Filmreel STARS

THE BEGINNING

THE BROTHERS LUMIÉRE


The brothers Lumiére, who were going several years in his invention and having filmed already more than one hundred of movies of a minute, decided to teach his invention to the people of Paris.
When the spectators saw moving the carriages him for the streets of Lyons, they stayed petrified open-mouthed, speechless and surprised beyond what can express The diaries of Paris to him they praised that unusual spectacle and the brothers Lumiére had his unconditional spectators assured, from the second day.




GEORGES MÉLIÈS


Georges Mèliés got enthusiastic with the invention of the Lumiére because of his knowledge of the world of the cajolement, it had developed his filmmaker's career, applying his skills to the world of the spectacle in the Theatre Robert Houdini, of Paris, which he bought for the effect and whom it provided with all the necessary inventions to realize sophisticated puttings in scene and to surprise the Parisian ones with his sets, projections, wardrobes and representations.






EDWIN S. POTTER


Edwin S. Porter, had the brilliant idea of mounting separately a series of scenes of file of fires and actions of the firemen on the one hand, and for other one you sequence of firemen taken by him. The result was, probably, the first movie of assembly of the history of the cinema "Life of an American fireman".




D.W. GRIFFITH

Griffith created his own history being awarded the being the pioneer of several cinematographic discoveries without it being, there is no the one who doubts the decisive importance of his producer's task to be served the technology and to discover, to expand and to consolidate great part of what today is considered to be the cinematographic language. His first contribution is in the way of using the set of technical skills to count better his histories. From 1908 it rolled tape infinity, did all the conceivable experiments, in moments, as affirm several authors in whom, neither when rules nor schools of filming exist, everything was allowed.

AWARDS

Oscars

The Oscars – also called Academy Awards- are a few annual prizes granted by the Academy of the Arts and the Cinematographic Sciences of The United States in recognition of the excellence of the professionals in the cinematographic industry, including the directors, actors and writers, and it is widely considered the Oscar to be the maximum honour in cine. they are called officially".
To win not only means to receive one of the valued golden statuettes of 34 centimetres. Besides the direct etiquette to the highest of the cinematographic prestige, the actors with an Oscar gain even US$10 million more a year that those who have not been rewarded.
The cinema is an industry that moves thousands million of dollars between productions and ticket offices. Because of it the ' Prizes of the Academy to the Merit ', since really they are called the Oscar, they cannot happen unnoticed for anybody. The winners do not receive a monetary prize of the Academy, but yes slightly more valuable: reputation and popularity to indefinite term. According to the experts, it is like a contract to be gained off by life in Hollywood. And clear, the possibility of charging much more for every paper. For example: Russell Crowe, winner of the Oscar in 2000 for 'Gladiator', receives to the year US$29 million; and winning Angelina Jolie in 1999 for ' Girl, Interrupted’, earn US$30 million. On the other hand, other figures praised by his actions but that still do not receive statuette, as Hugh Jackman and Anne Hathaway, gain to the year US$11 million and US$7 million respectively. The trend is kept, according to Forbes's calculations: Reese Witherspoon (US$28 million), and Julia Roberts (US$ 20 millions) prizes have Oscar, whereas Sarah Jessica Parker (US$15 million) and Jennifer Aniston (US$11 million) not.  As for example Robert de Niro's case, which after the winning an Oscar in 1974 in "The Godfather" as better actor  has not stopped appearing in the cinema.
Generally, his name assures good ticket office the producers. Or Steven Spielberg's case, which since it gained the prize to the better director and better movie in 1993 for ' The List of Schindler ', has not stopped producing movies, and already custom has turned that every year does part of the select group of the nominated ones.


Golden Globe Awards

The Golden Globe Award is an American accolade bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign. The annual formal ceremony and dinner at which the awards are presented are a major part of the film industry's awards season, which culminates each year with the Academy Awards.





Emmy

An Emmy Award, or simply Emmy, recognizes excellence in the television industry, and corresponds to the Academy Award (for film), the Tony Award (for theatre), and the Grammy Award (for music).
The Emmy statuette, depicting a winged woman holding an atom, was designed by television engineer Louis McManus, who used his wife as the model. The statuette "has since become the symbol of the TV Academy's goal of supporting and uplifting the art and science of television: The wings represent the muse of art; the atom the electron of science



Razzies

The Golden Raspberry Awards, often shortened to the Razzies or GRA, is an award ceremony in recognition of the worst film. The annual Razzie Awards ceremony in Los Angeles precedes the corresponding Academy Awards ceremony by one day. The term raspberry in the name is used in its irreverent sense, as in "blowing a raspberry".
The first Raspberry Awards ceremony was held on March 31, 1981.


HISTORY OF FILM

The history of film began in the 1890s, when motion picture cameras were invented and film production companies started to be established. Because of the limits of technology, films of the 1890s were under a minute long and until 1927 motion pictures were produced without sound. The first decade of motion picture saw film moving from a novelty to an established large-scale entertainment industry. The films became several minutes long consisting of several shots. The first rotating camera for taking panning shots was built in 1897. The first film studios were built in 1897. Special effects were introduced and film continuity, involving action moving from one sequence into another, began to be used. In the 1900s, continuity of action across successive shots was achieved and the first close-up shot was introduced (that some claim D. W. Griffith invented). Most films of this period were what came to be called chase films.
The first use of animation in movies was in 1899. The first feature length multi-reel film was a 1906 Australian production. The first successful permanent theatre showing only films was The Nickelodeon in Pittsburgh in 1905. By 1910, actors began to receive screen credit for their roles, and the way to the creation of film stars was opened. Regular newsreels were exhibited from 1910 and soon became a popular way for finding out the news. Overall, from about 1910, American films had  the largest share of the market in Australia and in all European countries except France.
New film techniques were introduced in this period including the use of artificial lighting, fire effects and low-key lighting (i.e. lighting in which most of the frame is dark) for enhanced atmosphere during sinister scenes. As films grew longer, specialist writers were employed to simplify more complex stories derived from novels or plays into a form that could be contained on one reel and be easier to be understood by the audience – an audience that was new to this form of storytelling. Genres began to be used as categories; the main division was into comedy and drama, but these categories were further subdivided. During the First World War there was a complex transition for the film industry. The exhibition of films changed from short one-reel programs to feature films. Exhibition venues became larger and began charging higher prices. By 1914, continuity cinema was the established mode of commercial cinema. One of the advanced continuity techniques involved an accurate and smooth transition from one shot to another.
D. W. Griffith had the highest standing among American directors in the industry, because of the dramatic excitement he conveyed to the audience through his films. The American industry, or Hollywood, as it was becoming known after its new geographical center in California, gained the position it has held, more or less, ever since: film factory for the world and exporting its product to most countries. By the 1920s, the United States reached what is still its era of greatest-ever output, producingan average of 800 feature films annually, or 82% of the global total (Eyman, 1997). During late 1927, Warners released The Jazz Singer, with the first synchronized dialogue (and singing) in a feature film. By the end of 1929, Hollywood was almost all-talkie, with several competing sound systems (soon to be standardized). Sound saved the Hollywood studio system in the face of the Great Depression (Parkinson, 1995).

The desire for wartime propaganda created a renaissance in the film industry in Britain, with realistic war dramas. The onset of American involvement in World War II also brought a proliferation of films as both patriotism and propaganda. The House Un-American Activities Committee investigated Hollywood in the early 1950s. During the immediate post-war years the cinematic industry was also threatened by television, and the increasing popularity of the medium meant that some film theatres would bankruptand close. Following the end of World War II in the 1940s, the following decade, the 1950s, marked a Golden Age for non-English world cinema.